Parker Lucky Curve Patent
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. GEORGE S. PARKER, OF JANESVILLE, WISCONSIN. FOUNTAIN-PEN SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 606,231, dated June 28, 1898. Application filed July 26, 1897, Serial No. 645,884, (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE S. PARKER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Janesville, in the county of Rock and State of Wisconsin, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Fountain-Pens, (Case No. 1,) of which the following is a full, clear, concise, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming O a part of this specification.
My invention relates to fountain-pens; and its object is to improve the construction and operation of the “feeder” which conveys ink from the reservoir or barrel to the point of the pen.
It has been extremely difficult heretofore to construct a fountain-pen in which the feeder would supply the ink to the point of the pen regularly and in just the right quantity, and a quite common defect has been the liability of the ink to overflow upon the exterior of the nozzle when the pen was inverted and the cap replaced, the fingers being soiled by this ink when the pen was next used. My invention is designed to overcome these objectionable features and to provide a fountain-pen the feeder whereof will operate to supply the proper quantity of ink at a uniform rate of flow and which will return the excess of ink to the barrel when the pen is inverted, thus preventing the objectionable overflow upon the exterior of the nozzle.
My invention will be readily understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, which illustrate a feeder adapted to supply ink to the under side of the pen-point, and in which
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a fountain-pen employing my improved feeder.
Fig. 2 is an elevation of the working parts, the nozzle for clearness being illustrated as transparent to show the parts within.
Fig. 3 is a view of the feeder and pen from beneath to show their relative positions.
Fig. 4 is a similar view from above.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged top view of the feeder.
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view of a portion of a fountain pen employing a slightly-modified form of feeder.
Fig. 7 is a cross-sectional view on plane 7 7 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 8 is a cross sectional view on plane 8 8 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional view on plane 9 9 of Fig. 5.
Like letter refer to like parts throughout the several figures.
The barrel a is provided with a removable nozzle a’, which screws into its end. The pen b is held in place in the end of the nozzle by its frictional engagement with the feeder c, which consists of a bar passing through the longitudinal bore of the nozzle a’ into the interior of the barrel. A groove c’ is provided in the upper face of the feeder, said groove starting at the inner end c2, where it communicates with the reservoir. The groove gradually increases in depth to the opposite extremity c3 beneath the pen, as shown most clearly in Figs. 1, 5, and 6. The inner end c2 of the feeder is preferably bent to come approximately, if not quite, in contact with the interior wall of the barrel, as shown. A narrow slit d is cut in the bottom face of the feeder, said slit passing through the inner end c’ and downward, preferably ending, however, at a point about diametrically opposite the heel of the pen b. This slit is preferably cut deeper at this point to form a passage between the slit d and groove c’ through the feeder. The slit may otherwise be placed in communication with the groove c’, however.
I preferably cut a supplemental slit d´ in the end c3 of the feeder at the bottom of the groove c’, as shown most clearly in Figs. 1, 5, 7, and 8.
When the barrel a is filled with ink and the parts assembled as shown in Fig. 1, the device will operate as follows: Ink will be taken up from the wall of the barrel by the curved end c2 of the feeder and drawn toward its outer end through the narrow slit d by the force of capillary attraction, assisted by gravity, passing from the slit into the groove c’ in the upper face of the feeder, and thence down through the slit d’ and groove c’ to the point of the pen. The groove c’, as has been stated, is considerably deeper at the end c than at any other point, and thus serves as a reservoir to store a quantity of ink near the point of the pen for instant use, as for long heavy strokes. As the ink is drawn out of the barrel air must be permitted access thereto, and provision for this has been made in the groove c’. The air being light will naturally pass through the groove c’ in the top of the feeder, so that the heavier ink may find a passage down the slit d, which is unobstructed by air bubbles. In feeders heretofore employed a frequent source of annoyance has been the collection of air-bubbles in the capillary pas sages, necessitating “jerking’ of the pen to force out the ink. This difficulty has not been overcome by a common construction which allows access of air through a groove along the bottom of the feeder, the ink-duct being along the top, because the air-bubbles will naturally find a path to the top and often collect in the ink-duct, stopping the flow of ink. It will be appreciated that with my construction a passage for air is provided at the top of the feeder, so that the ink may flow unimpeded through the capillary slit d, and from thence into the groove c’ and slit d’ at a point near the heel of the pen. An equally important service is performed by this slit d when the pen is inverted. In this condition all excess of ink which was in the groove c’ is immediately drained by the slit d and returned to the reservoir, egress of air being permitted by way of the groove.
The supplemental slit d’ assists the slit d in performing its functions and, in addition, keeps the extremity of the feeder moist to cause a quick flow of ink to the point of the pen. This slit d’, while advantageous in many respects, is not absolutely essential to the feeder, and in Fig. 6 I have shown a construction wherein it is omitted. I prefer to form all parts, except, of course, the pen itself, of hard rubber; but any suitable material may be used.
I have described and illustrated a feeder adapted to supply ink to the under side of the pen; but my invention may be readily adapted to other constructions, and I do not therefore desire to be understood as limiting myself to the precise construction shown; but, Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
- In a fountain pen, the combination with a feeder bar, the inner end whereof is formed to come into approximate contact with the wall of the ink-reservoir, of a longitudinal groove along the upper side of said feeder bar, said groove, starting at the inner end, gradually increasing in depth to the portion under the nib of the pen, and a longitudinal capillary slit d in the opposite or under side of the feeder starting at its inner extremity, passing along its under side and only communicating with said groove at a point approximately under the pen, substantially as described.
- A feeder for a fountain-pen, consisting of a bar having a longitudinal groove along the side thereof next the pen and communicating with the ink-reservoir, said bar also being provided with a capillary slit passing along the under side thereof and opening into the ink reservoir throughout a portion of its length, and a capillary passage affording Communication between said capillary slit and said groove, substantially as described.
- A feeder for a fountain-pen, consisting of a bar having a longitudinal groove in the side next the pen communicating with the ink-reservoir, said groove gradually increasing in depth from the inner end to the outer extremity of the bar, said bar also having a capillary slit in its under side communicating at one end with the reservoir and at the other end with said groove, substantially as and for the purpose described.
- A feeder for a fountain-pen, consisting of a bar having a longitudinal groove in the side thereof next the pen, the inner end of said bar being formed to come into approximate contact with the side of the reservoir, said bar also having a capillary slit d passing along the under side thereof and opening into the ink-reservoir throughout a portion of its length, a capillary slit d’ along the bot tom of Said groove, and a capillary passage affording communication between said slit d and said slit d, substantially as described.
- In a fountain-pen, a feeder-bar provided with a capillary ink-duct opening in the reservoir at or near the lower interior wall or side of said reservoir, said capillary duct ex tending downwardly to an enlarged or deep end portion, said enlarged portion opening into a groove immediately under the pen on the opposite side of said bar, to form a continuation of said duct, said groove forming the continuation being enlarged to form an ink-holding chamber immediately under the nib of the pen, the upper portion of said groove communicating with the reservoir to form a vent, Substantially as and for the purposes described.
In witness whereof I hereunto subscribe my name this 21st day of July, A. D. 1897.
GEORGE S. PARKER.
Witnesses: GEORGE L. CRAGG, A. L. LAWRENCE.
Parker Jointless Patent
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. GEORGE SAFFORD PARKER, OF JANESVILLE, WISCONSIN. FOUNTAIN-PEN. SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 622,256, dated April 4, 1899. Application filed March 7, 1898, Serial No. 672,957, (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE SAFFORD PARKER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Janesville, in the county of Rock and State of Wisconsin, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Fountain-Pens, (Case No. 2,) of which the following is a full, clear, concise, and exact description.
My invention relates to a fountain-pen; and its object is to improve and simplify the construction of certain parts of the pen and to overcome thereby a number of defects which have existed in nearly if not quite all fountain-pens hitherto in use.
It has been a common construction heretofore to provide a nozzle adapted to be screwed upon the end of the barrel and to form a continuation thereof. The pen itself was inserted in the end of the nozzle and a feeder passing through the nozzle served to conduct the ink from the interior of the barrel to the point of the pen. The nozzle in some cases instead of being screwed on the end of the barrel was made tapering and was designed to be retained within the barrel by frictional engagement with a correspondingly-tapered portion thereof. The length of the nozzle also has been varied Somewhat; but with a few such slight modifications as these the construction above described has been adopted – almost universally by fountain-pen manufacturers. The objections most strongly urged against the arrangement of parts above described have been principally these: First, unless the nozzle was screwed upon the end of the barrel very tightly the ink was quite liable to leak out between the faces of the adjoining parts, any irregularity or imperfection in the joint being certain to produce such a result. This action was considerably increased by the effect of suction produced by the fingers of the writer, who grasps the barrel at this point. In the second place the nozzle was quite apt to be broken off at its point of juncture with the barrel, the thin ness of the material at this point often causing breakage when the pen was subjected to a slight strain, as it frequently is when carried in the pocket. A third objection, somewhat analogous to the one first mentioned, is that the nozzle was apt to be screwed so tightly on the end of the barrel that it could not be easily removed and was frequently broken in the attempt. This effect was increased by the ink drying in the interstices between the screw-threads.
In accordance with my invention the nozzle takes the form of a plug, wherein are mounted the pen and feeder, said plug preferably being cylindrical in shape, finished with a smooth exterior, and adapted to fit snugly into the mouth of the barrel. An elastic locking tongue is mounted upon the plug, preferably being formed integrally there with and extending rearwardly and laterally therefrom, said tongue thus having an outwardly-projecting end. A groove or recess is formed in the inner wall of the barrel and is adapted to be engaged by the end of the aforesaid locking tongue, the plug being inserted into the bore of the barrel until the end of the tongue snaps into place, thus positively locking the plug, with its contained parts, in position. The groove or recess is preferably cut in a V shape, the rear arm of said V being substantially at right angles with the wall of the barrel, forming a shoulder, against which the end of the locking-tongue abuts, thus preventing the plug from being forced too far into the barrel. When it is desired to remove the plug, together with the pen and feeder mounted therein, for the purpose of filling the barrel with ink, it is only necessary to grasp the projecting portion of the pen and give a slight pull, whereupon the plug may be freely withdrawn. The annular groove may thus be generally described as having opposing surfaces angularly disposed with relation to the inner surface of the barrel.
I will explain the details of my invention more specifically by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
Figure 1 is a longitudinal elevation of a fountain-pen constructed in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view thereof on line 2-2 of Fig. 1, somewhat enlarged.
Fig. 3 is a side view of the plug, showing the pen and feeder mounted therein.
Fig. 3a is a longitudinal sectional view of the barrel.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the feeder, the plug inclosing the same being shown in section and the pen in dotted lines.
Fig. 5 is an end view of the fountain-pen, and
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view thereof on line 6-6 of Fig. 2.
Like parts are indicated by like letters of reference throughout the several figures.
The pen a is securely held within the plug b by the frictional engagement of the feeder c, which passes through the plug, one end thereof projecting within the barrel d and the opposite or outer end terminating under the nib of the pen. The inner end c’ of the feeder is preferably bent to come into approximate contact with the side of the barrel, the more readily to take up ink therefrom. I have shown a slot a2 along the top of the feeder and a cylindrical rod a3 lying in such slot, since I have found that such a construction will serve very well to secure capillary action necessary for a steady feeding of the ink from the interior of the barrel to the nib of the pen. Such construction of the feeder, however, is not essential to my present invention since a feeder of any desired construction may be employed.
The plug b is cylindrical in shape and is finished with a smooth exterior, fitting snugly but not tightly into the bore of the barrel, which has a corresponding smooth surface.
An annular V-shaped recess or channel d3 is cut in the inner wall of the barrel, such recess being so disposed that one side thereof forms a shoulder d2 at right angles with the wall of the barrel. The inner end of the plug is cut away and formed to constitute an elastic locking-tongue having an outwardly-projecting end, so that when the plug is inserted in the bore of the barrel the end of the tongue snaps into the annular recess and holds the plug positively in its place. The rear wall d2 of the recess is so abrupt that it is impossible for the end of the tongue to pass it, so that there is no danger of the plug being jammed too far into the barrel.
When the barrel is to be refilled with ink, the plug, together with the pen and feeder mounted therein, may be readily removed by grasping the projecting portion of the pen and feeder and giving a slight pull, whereupon the tongue b’ will be disengaged from the annular recess d3 and the plug may be freely withdrawn.
It will be observed that by employing my invention the portion of the fountain-pen which is grasped by the fingers in writing is formed in one piece, with no cracks or joints through which the ink may leak and having no shoulder, channel, knurled rib, or the like to interfere With the convenience of the user. It also will be observed that the fountain-pen illustrated will not be liable to break when subjected to a slight strain, having no external joint at which the material is weakened.
It might be urged, perhaps, at first glance that ink would be liable to ooze out through the crack between the exterior of the plug and the inside wall of the barrel. If the parts are made with ordinarily skillful workmanship, however, I have found that this will not be the case. The reason that a crack or joint on the side of the barrel is so liable to permit the leakage of ink is that the fingers of the writer cause a pumping or sucking action which draws the ink out through any cracks or fissures which may be under them.
It will be understood that the form of fountain-pen shown in the drawings may be modified to some extent without departing from the spirit of my invention, and I do not wish to be understood as limiting myself to the precise construction illustrated. Obviously, the feeder and plug might be formed in one piece or other changes made and the essential features of the invention retained.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
- In a fountain-pen, the combination with a jointless or continuous barrel having an annular groove or recess in its inner wall near the mouth of the barrel, of a plug constituting the nozzle of the fountain-pen, said plug having a smooth cylindrical exterior adapted to fit removably within the bore of the barrel and to be concealed thereby, a pen and feeder fixedly mounted within said plug, and an elastic locking-tongue carried by said plug for engaging the annular groove in said barrel, thereby serving to lock the plug positively in position in the mouth of the barrel, substantially as set forth.
- In a fountain-pen, the combination with a jointless or continuous barrel having a smoothly-finished surface at its mouth and having an annular groove in its inner wall, the walls of the said annular groove being angularly disposed with relation to the inner sur face of the barrel, of a plug having a smoothly finished cylindrical exterior adapted to fit re movably within the mouth of said barrel, a pen and feeder fixedly mounted in said plug, and an elastic locking-tongue carried upon the inner end of the plug and having an out wardly-projecting end for engaging with the annular groove in the inner wall of the barrel and serving to lock the plug positively in position, substantially as described.
- In a fountain-pen, the combination with a barrel d having a groove or recess d3 in its inner Wall near the mouth of the barrel, of a plug or nozzle wherein are mounted a pen and feeder, and an elastic locking-tongue extend ing from the plug or nozzle and having engagement with said groove, whereby the plug is locked in position in the mouth of the barrel, substantially as described.
In witness whereof I hereunto subscribe my name this 3d day of March, A. D. 1898.
GEORGE SAFFORD PARKER.
Witnesses: W. F. PALMER, MAY NORRIS.